Stanford Faculty Development Center: Clinical Teaching Program
Using a train-the-trainer approach, Stanford University offers an intensive one-month facilitator-training course in clinical teaching for selected individual faculty. This course, held on the Stanford campus, includes didactic sessions, readings, group discussion, role playing exercises, videotape review of practice teaching, guest lectures, and home-site program implementation sessions. Participants are given numerous opportunities to practice their teaching.
The Clinical Teaching curriculum covers seven educational categories:
- Learning Climate
- Control of Session
- Communication of Goals
- Promotion of Understanding & Retention
- Promotion of Self-Directed Learning
When faculty return to their home institutions, they are expected to deliver a series of seven 2-hour seminars to their colleagues and to residents covering the curriculum noted above. For more information on the Stanford Program, visit http://sfdc.stanford.edu/
Harvard Macy Institute
The Institute offers three different continuing health care education programs for faculty educators in the health professions.
- Program for Educators in Health Professions each year provides a select group of 60-plus physicians, basic scientists, and other healthcare professionals an opportunity to enhance their skills as educators over two sessions at Harvard - 11 days in winter and 6 days in spring. The program focuses on five major areas - learning and teaching; curriculum, evaluation, leadership, and information technology - using such learning formats as large-group presentations, problem-based learning, observation, interactive exercises, reflective journals, and large and small group discussion. Participants' enhanced skills in these educational domains will help them both conduct their own individually designed educational project, as well as to become educational leaders at their own institutions.
- A Systems Approach to Assessment in Health Science Education program focuses on teaching participants various areas of academic assessment (e.g., evaluating the learning and acquisition of competencies; teaching; education scholarship, and program efficacy) so that they can develop and lead effective and comprehensive evaluation efforts at their home institutions. During the program, participants will be involved in such curricular venues as large-group case discussions, small-group literature analysis, collaborative work groups, and expert panel discussion, as well as the chance to have an individual consultation with an assessment expert.
- Leading Innovations in Health Care and Education is designed to help leaders with major responsibilities for healthcare education and delivery across various disciplines develop their own strategies for leading and handling organizational change to help their home institutions fulfill its educational mission. Participants analyze management and case studies in order to learn, for example, how to evaluate an institution's structure, processes, culture, and readiness for change; identify leadership styles for fostering educational innovation; negotiate and build coalitions; obtain and distribute resources; and manage conflict and resistance to change. Other teaching formats include interactive presentations, panel discussions, and an informal exchange of insights and experiences among diverse participants and faculty.
For more information on any of these programs, visit http://www.harvardmacy.org/
National/International Educational Organizations
Numerous national and international medical organizations offer faculty development programs at annual and regional meetings, as well as various topic-specific meetings at various times throughout the year. Some of these organizations are education-specific; others are discipline-specific. A brief description of a sampling of these organizations follows.
- The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) represents all 131 accredited U.S. and 17 accredited Canadian medical schools; approximately 400 major teaching hospitals and health systems; and nearly 90 academic and scientific societies.
The AAMC supports a number of professional development groups for individuals in leadership positions at AAMC-member medical schools, teaching hospitals, and academic societies, such as the Group on Faculty Affairs, Group on Student Affairs, Group on Diversity and Inclusion, and Group on Educational Affairs (GEA). The GEA is the only group that does not require appointment by the medical school dean, teaching hospital executive, or academic society president. The GEA is open to individuals with professional responsibility in medical student, resident, and continuing medical education, designated by deans, hospital directors, or academic societies. The GEA is organized in four regions: Northeast (NEGEA); Southern (SGEA); Central (CGEA) and Western (WGEA). The GEA is also organized into sections reflecting the continuum of medical education: Undergraduate Medical Education (UGME); Graduate Medical Education (GME); Continuing Medical Education (CME), and Research in Medical Education (RIME).
RIME focuses on enhancing the quality of research in medical education and advancing its application in educational practice. It offers the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program (http://www.aamc.org/members/gea/merc/start.htm), targeted for clinicians and other educators with a background in medical education but with less experience in educational research. Workshops (typically 3-hours long and offered at the annual AAMC and Regional meetings) focus on a key skill or area in educational research and are facilitated by experienced medical education researchers. The MERC curriculum consists of workshops on the following 10 topics:
- Data management and Basic Statistics in Educational Research
- Formulating Research Questions and Designing Studies
- Hypothesis-Driven Research
- Institutional Review Boards and Research Ethics
- Measuring Educational Outcomes with Reliability and Validity
- Overview of Qualitative Data Collection Methods
- Program Evaluation and Evaluation Research
- Qualitative Analysis Methods in Medical Education
- Questionnaire Design and Survey Research
- Searching and Evaluating the Medical Education Literature
To qualify for the certificate, a participant must choose and complete six workshops, which can be taken in any order. Workshops are offered at the annual AAMC meeting, as well as at the annual Regional meetings.
The annual GEA national meeting, the Research in Medical Education (RIME) Conference (including paper and poster presentations), and the Innovations in Medical Education Exhibits (IME) are held each fall in conjunction with the AAMC Annual Meeting. Each regional group also holds an annual spring meeting. Various faculty development workshops, discussion groups, plenary sessions, and paper presentations are offered at the annual and regional GEA meetings.
For more information, visit www.aamc.org or, for the NEGEA regional section, http://www.aamc.org/members/gea/regions/negea/start.htm
AAMC also sponsors MedEdPortal (www.mededportal.org), an online peer-reviewed publication service that includes quality peer-reviewed teaching material and assessment tools such as tutorials, virtual patients, simulation cases, videos, podcasts, lab guides, assessment tools, etc.
- The Generalists in Medical Education are basic scientists, clinicians, and other educators interested in medical education who teach, conduct research, and provide support services in all areas of pre-doctoral, post-doctoral and continuing medical education. The annual 1-1/2-day conference is held in conjunction with the opening of the AAMC annual meeting and at a nearby location, as well. During the annual meeting, members exchange ideas and information to enhance their professional growth and have opportunities to learn about the latest initiatives and innovations in medical education and to explore solutions to educational problems. No membership dues are required. Registering for the annual conference automatically leads to membership in the organization, as well as a subscription to Teaching and Learning in Medicine.
For more information, visit http://www.thegeneralists.org
- International Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) is a worldwide organization of educators, researchers, administrators, curriculum developers, evaluators, and students in medicine and the healthcare professions from over 90 countries on five continents. In addition to an annual conference (in late August or early September), the organization provides courses on teaching, assessment, and research skills and produces the journal Medical Teacher, a series of education guides, occasional papers and Best Evidence Medical Educationguides, and the online information resource MedEdCentral.
For more information, visit http://amee.org/
The organization also has an online web community (www.mededworld.com) that covers news of developments in medical education submitted by contributors around the world. In addition, this web site provides medical educators a way to share ideas, experiences, and expertise, as well as possibilities to collaborate in future medical education endeavors.
- American Educational Research Association (AERA) iis an international professional organization whose major goal is to advance educational research in education and evaluation and its practical application. Its over 25,000 members include educators, administrators, research directors, education evaluators. Among its broad range of disciplines are medical educators - members of Division I, Education in the Professions. The goal of this division includes advancing educational research, development, and evaluation in the professions, including medicine. It supports scholarly presentations and publications, provides professional growth and recognition opportunities, enhances communication and collaboration among members.
For more information, go to http://www.aera.net/
- The International Association of Medical Science Educators (IAMSE) is an international and interdisciplinary organization. Its members are faculty from basic science and clinical medicine, as well as other health care disciplines, hailing from over 40 countries. Its mission is that all those who teach the sciences fundamental to medical practice should be privy to the most up-to- date information and skills needed to be expert educators. Included among the various opportunities IAMSE provides are enhanced teaching skills, educational innovations, student and program evaluation, computer technology, learner-centered education, and standardized patient simulation. The organization provides a trusted source of information and support.
Visit http://iamse.org/ for more information.
- The American College of Emergency Physicians Teaching Fellowship is designed for faculty in residency programs and other physicians responsible for teaching emergency medicine who want to improve their teaching skills.
For information, go to http://www.acep.org/cme.aspx?id=22382
- Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) is an intensive one-year program for senior women faculty in medical and dental schools. Housed at Drexel University College of Medicine, the program provides coaching, networking, and mentoring opportunities to qualified women candidates to polish skills important for senior leadership positions at academic health centers. The structure consists of two 8-10 sessions, as well as a half-day meeting during the annual AAMC meeting. The program has three major parts: personal and professional development, traditional MBA skills, and emerging issues in academic health centers.
For more information, go to www.drexelmed.edu/Home/OtherPrograms/ExecutiveLeadershipinAcademicMedicine.aspx
- The Association for Academic Psychiatry (AAP) reaches out to every learner level, from the beginning of medical school through lifelong learning for psychiatrists and other physicians. It helps those interested in academic psychiatry to develop skills and knowledge in teaching, research, and career development. The organization provides a forum for members to share ideas on curriculum development, teaching techniques, and other issues. Its web site provides a plethora of educational resources for members, including "Medical Education Online": — an electronic journal. AAP is a co-sponsors the journal Academic Psychiatry. See http://www.academicpsychiatry.org
- The Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP) is an organization for psychiatric medical student educators that strives for excellence in educating medical students in psychiatry and the behavioral sciences. Its goals include supporting, conducting, and distributing research in teaching methods, content, and evaluation in this field; supporting professional development for members; and providing career guidance for students considering psychiatric careers. The organization collaborates closely with other medical education and psychiatric organizations, holds annual meetings, and is a co-sponsor of the journal Academic Psychiatry.
Visit http://www.admsep.org/ for more information.
- The Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics (APGO), begun in 1963, promotes excellence in women's health care by offering support and resources to those who educate future providers of women's health care. The organization is committed teachers and teaching, collaboration among professionals, developing and sharing innovative educational tools and techniques, and maintaining the following six core competencies: professionalism; interpersonal skills; practice-based learning and improvement; systems-based practice; medical knowledge, and patient care. Its membership consists of academic obstetricians and gynecologists from the US and Canada who are committed to teachers and teaching. Members have access to the on-line website (www.apgo.org), which includes faculty development opportunities, meeting information, grants and awards information, a resource network, and the APGO Medical Student Educational Objectives (on which the WCMC OB-GYN Clerkship objectives are based).
- The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), a leading non-profit organization of professionals who provide health care for women. Founded in 1951, ACOG promotes quality health care for women, patient education and involvement in medical care; awareness of changing issues in women's health care, and maintaining high standards of clinical practice and continuing education for its over 49,000 members. Its web site provides members with such resources as meeting and workshop information; on-line discussion groups; full texts of key ACOG technical publications; and the ACOG library that provides information on ACOGG publications, ob/gyn statistics, and MEDLINE searches. See http://www.acog.org
- The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) is a not-for-profit organization of health professionals dedicated to improving older adults' health, independence, and quality of life. Its goals include increasing the geriatrics knowledge base through developing and supporting initiatives that promote basic, clinical, and health services research; increasing the number of healthcare professionals who follow geriatric medicine principles when taking care of older patients; recruiting more physicians and other health care providers into geriatrics careers; and advocating for public policy that supports better healthcare for older adults; and increasing the public's awareness of the need for quality geriatric health care. It holds annual meetings and provides on-line education programs, training and curriculum guidelines, and complete curricula and materials (e.g., end-of-life-care curriculum; core curriculum in ethnogeriatrics). Among its publications is the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. See http://www.americangeriatrics.org
- The Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs (ADGAP) housed within the AGS structure, is committed to advancing academic geriatrics programs and supporting their program directors. It has built and fostered new ways to facilitate the development of leadership skills among academic geriatricians. It also provides a forum for them to discuss the diverse issues they encounter as educators. It also acts as a resource for information about various academic geriatrics programs. For more information, visit http://www.americangeriatrics.org
- The American Neurological Association (ANA) is a society of academic neurologists and neuroscientists dedicated to training and educating neurologists and other physicians in the neurologic sciences and promoting research in the nervous system and the causes and treatment of its diseases. It hosts annual meetings and publishes The Annals of Neurology. For more information, see http://www.aneuroa.org
- The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), an international organization of more than 20,000 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to providing the highest quality care for patients with neurological diseases. Member benefits include access to patient information materials and other high quality products and services, as well as an opportunity to participate in up to 27 special interest groups. See http://www.aan.com
- The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), established in 1905, is an educational, research, and scientific organization dedicated to elevating and upholding the standards of anesthesiology and improving care for patients requiring anesthesia or relief from pain. Its five-day annual meeting is the world's largest educational program for anesthesiologists, providing them with up-to-date information on developments in the field. The organization also offers CME refresher courses at the meeting, as well as at regional courses throughout the year. See http://www.asahq.org
- The oldest organization of public health professionals, the American Public Health Association has been working to improve public health since 1872. It consists of a broad array of health professionals committed to the care of the health of their communities. It hosts an annual meeting, as well as various other learning and professional development programs (e.g., Learning Institute Courses). Among its publications are the American Journal of Public Health, The Nation's Health, and Inside Public Health. See http://www.apha.org
- The American College of Surgeons, with its approximately 77,000 members, was founded in 1913. Members of the College are referred to as "Fellows," indicating completion of a rigorous evaluation of their education and training, professional qualifications, surgical competence, and ethical conduct consistent with standards established by the College. Surgeons just starting practice and who meet specific requirements can also play an active role in the College as "Associate Fellows." Among its numerous activities is a variety of continuing medical education programs, such as the Clinical Congress, to help surgeons keep up-to-date on diverse surgical areas. The organization publishes the Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Surgery News, ACS NewsScope, and the Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons. Visit their home page at http://www.facs.org
- The mission of the Association for Surgical Education, includes developing novel teaching resources and programs in surgical education, creating effective faculty development programs for surgical educators, and promoting research in surgical education. See their Clearinghouse on Education, which disseminates information and materials related to various surgical education topics and provides faculty development and instructional materials. See http://www.allianceforclinicaleducation.org
- The American Medical Association (AMA) was founded in 1847 to raise the standard of medical education in the United States, to advance the science of medicine, and to improve public health, and the organization continues to center on these founding principles today. The organization consists of various member groups and sections (e.g., Group Practice Physicians; Women Physicians Congress; Young Physicians Section). Members have access to various products, programs, and services, including a wide range of continuing medical education activities to foster lifelong learning. Its 12 journal publications include the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the Archives of Internal Medicine. See http://www.ama-assn.org for more information.
- The American Academy of Pediatrics is an organization of over 60,000 pediatricians. It provides general information related to child health and specific guidelines about various pediatric issues. Members have access to several of the organization's 53 pediatric specialty/special interest Sections and Councils - or 66 regionally-based Chapters. Professional development opportunities include PediaLink, an online tool designed to help members direct and manage their continuing professional development. Visit the organization's web site at http://www.aap.org
- The Academic Pediatric Association is devoted to educating child health professionals, conducting research, and disseminating knowledge and advocating for improving the health of children and adolescents. It prides itself on being a venue for young academics to network and to develop professional and personal relationships, as well to create projects that have a broad national impact. Its Educational Scholars Program assists pediatric educators to develop into productive faculty members. This program (typically 3-4 years) includes didactic sessions, workshops, and a mentored project. The curriculum is presented at the annual meeting, as well as a series of modules for self-directed and collaborative learning (some on-line) between the annual meetings. Upon completion of the program, participants receive a Certificate of Excellence in Educational Scholarship. For more information, visit http://www.ambpeds.org
- The Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics (COMSEP) promotes excellence in undergraduate medical education in pediatrics, fostering the creation, distribution, and assessment of curricular materials and educational resources and advocates for research in pediatric medial education. See http://www.comsep.org